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By J. Umul. Ohio Wesleyan University. 2019.

Most patients are asymptomatic until they develop complications of chronic liver disease buy super avana 160 mg free shipping erectile dysfunction doctors in nc. This page intentionally left blank Case 14 A 42-year-old Hispanic woman presents to the emergency department complaining of 24 hours of severe purchase super avana on line amex erectile dysfunction after radiation treatment for rectal cancer, steady epigastric abdominal pain generic 160mg super avana visa can erectile dysfunction cause infertility, radiating to her back, with several episodes of nausea and vomiting. She has experienced similar painful episodes in the past, usually in the evening following heavy meals, but the episodes always resolved spon- taneously within an hour or two. She is married, has three children, and does not drink alco- hol or smoke cigarettes. On examination, she is afebrile, tachycardic with a heart rate of 104 bpm, blood pressure 115/74 mm Hg, and shallow respirations of 22 breaths per minute. She is moving uncomfortably on the stretcher, her skin is warm and diaphoretic, and she has scleral icterus. Her abdomen is soft, mildly distended with marked right upper quadrant and epigastric tenderness to palpation, hypoactive bowel sounds, and no masses or organomegaly appreciated. Her leukocyte count is 16,500/mm3 with 82% polymorphonuclear cells and 16% lymphocytes. A plain film of the abdomen shows a nonspecific gas pattern and no pneumoperitoneum. She also has hyperbiliru- binemia and an elevated alkaline phosphatase level, suggesting obstruction of the common bile duct caused by a gallstone, which is the likely cause of her pancreatitis. Considerations This 42-year-old woman complained of episodes of mild right upper quadrant abdominal pain with heavy meals in the past. However, this episode is dif- ferent in severity and location of pain (now radiating straight to her back and accompanied by nausea and vomiting). The elevated amylase level confirms the clinical impression of acute pancreatitis. The next most common cause is biliary tract disease, usually due to passage of a gallstone into the common bile duct. Hypertriglyceridemia is another common cause and occurs when serum triglyceride levels are more than 1000 mg/dL, as is seen in patients with familial dyslipidemias or diabetes (etiologies are given in Table 14–2). When patients appear to have “idiopathic” pancreatitis, that is, no gallstones are seen on ultrasonography and no other pre- disposing factor can be found, biliary tract disease is still the most likely cause— either biliary sludge (microlithiasis) or sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. The pain often is relieved by sitting up and bending forward, and is exacerbated by food. Patients commonly experience nausea and vomiting that is precipitated by oral intake. They may have low-grade fever (if temperature is >101°F, one should suspect infection) and often are volume depleted because of the vomiting, inability to tolerate oral intake, and because the inflammatory process may cause third spac- ing with sequestration of large volumes of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. The most common test used to diagnose pancreatitis is an elevated serum amylase level. It is released from the inflamed pancreas within hours of the attack and remains elevated for 3 to 4 days. Amylase undergoes renal clearance, and after serum levels decline, its level remains elevated in the urine. Amylase is not specific to the pancreas, however, and can be elevated as a consequence of many other abdominal processes, such as gastrointestinal ischemia with infarction or perforation; even just the vomiting associated with pancreatitis can cause elevated amylase of salivary origin. Elevated serum lipase level, also seen in acute pancreatitis, is more specific than is amylase to pancreatic origin and remains elevated longer than does amylase. Treatment of pancreatitis is mainly supportive and includes “pancreatic rest,” that is, withholding food or liquids by mouth until symptoms subside and adequate narcotic analgesia, usually with meperidine. In patients with severe pancreatitis who sequester large volumes of fluid in their abdomen as pancreatic ascites, sometimes prodigious amounts of parenteral fluid replace- ment are necessary to maintain intravascular volume. Patients with adynamic ileus and abdominal distention or protracted vomiting may benefit from naso- gastric suction. When pain has largely subsided and the patient has bowel sounds, oral clear liquids can be started and the diet advanced as tolerated. Several criteria have been developed in an attempt to identify the 15% to 25% of patients who will have a more complicated course. When three or more of the following criteria are present, a severe course complicated by pan- creatic necrosis can be predicted by Ranson criteria (Table 14–1). The most common cause of early death in patients with pancreatitis is hypovolemic shock, which is multifactorial: third spacing and sequestration of large fluid volumes in the abdomen, as well as increased capillary permeability. Pancreatic complications include a phlegmon, which is a solid mass of inflamed pancreas, often with patchy areas of necrosis. Either necrosis or a phlegmon can become secondarily infected, resulting in pancreatic abscess. Abscesses typically develop 2 to 3 weeks after the onset of illness and should be suspected if there is fever or leukocytosis. Pancreatic necrosis and abscess are the leading causes of death in patients after the first week of illness. A pancreatic pseudo- cyst is a cystic collection of inflammatory fluid and pancreatic secretions, which unlike true cysts do not have an epithelial lining. Most pancreatic pseudocysts resolve spontaneously within 6 weeks, especially if they are smaller than 6 cm. However, if they are causing pain, are large or expanding, or become infected, they usually require drainage. Any of these local complications of pancreatitis should be suspected if persistent pain, fever, abdominal mass, or persistent hyperamylasemia occurs. Gallstones Gallstones usually form as a consequence of precipitation of cholesterol microcrystals in bile. When discovered incidentally, they can be followed without intervention, as only 10% of patients will develop any symptoms related to their stones within 10 years. When patients do develop symptoms because of a stone in the cystic duct or Hartmann pouch, the typical attack of biliary colic usually has a sudden onset, often pre- cipitated by a large or fatty meal, with severe steady pain in the right upper quadrant or epigastrium, lasting between 1 and 4 hours. They may have mild elevations of the alkaline phosphatase level and slight hyperbilirubinemia, but elevations of the bilirubin level over 3 g/dL suggest a common duct stone. The first diagnostic test in a patient with suspected gallstones usually is an ultra- sonogram. The test is noninvasive and very sensitive for detecting stones in the gallbladder as well as intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary duct dilation. This is apparent ultra- sonographically as gallbladder wall thickening and pericholecystic fluid, and is characterized clinically as a persistent right upper quadrant abdominal pain, with fever and leukocytosis. Cultures of bile in the gallbladder often yield enteric flora such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella. The positive test shows visualization of the liver by the isotope, but nonvisualization of the gallbladder may indicate an obstructed cystic duct. Treatment of acute cholecystitis usually involves making the patient npo (nil per os), intravenous fluids and antibiotics, and early cholecystectomy within 48 to 72 hours. Another complication of gallstones is cholangitis, which occurs when there is intermittent obstruction of the common bile duct, allowing reflux of bacteria up the biliary tree, followed by development of purulent infection behind the obstruction. After 3 months she is noted to have severe right upper quadrant pain, fever to 102°F, and nausea.

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There is just no way a scientist can investigate us discount super avana 160 mg line erectile dysfunction caused by vasectomy, because this is our profession best super avana 160mg non prescription erectile dysfunction drugs. The preoccupations and language of these articles are evidence of their American origin purchase super avana once a day impotence over 40. By the late seventies articles on religious cults, Transcendental Meditation, Scientology and Hare Krishna had appeared in the Mew Humanist. The tone of these articles tended to be illiberal, authoritarian and peppered with scientific paternalism. In the early eighties, the Mew Humanist carried a number of articles on the New Age. These articles give shape to many of the arguments which the Campaign Against Health Fraud would later use. Of cults the journal said: One can only say that the cults appear to be as successful as ever in trapping naive idealists disenchanted with high technology materialism. Those attracted to the cults, apart from being utterly desperate, are often educated, upper middle-class and with enough money to pay the necessary costs of membership (some cults demand several thousand pounds in advance). The less rich or less educated tend to gather in looser groupings about Glastonbury and other 8 supposedly sacred centres. During this period, for the first time, medical science began to work its way into the pages of the rationalist journal. Chapter Eighteen British and Irish Skeptics It should be observed that Scepticism as a philosophy is not merely doubt, but what might be called dogmatic doubt... Sceptics, of course, deny that they assert the impossibility of 1 knowledge dogmatically, but their denials are not very convincing. Even the most rudimentary magazines cost money to produce and a constant commitment to distribute. Like the New Humanist, it was a magazine which carried no advertising and had no easily identifiable readership. Little information about any of the contributors or editorial personel was given in this or future issues, making it impossible to place them in the context of any academic, scientific or intellectual debate. Sabbagh was also the director of the Merck Sharp and Dohme Foundation, an academic front set up by the drug company of the same name. In December 1987, the first organising meeting of Manchester Skeptics took place and from then onwards the Manchester Committee became the strongest in Britain. Caroline Richmond, who was to call the first steering committee meeting of what was at first called the British Council Against Health Fraud, was from the beginning associated with the British and Irish Skeptic. Why would there be an inevitable coincidence of opinion between those who felt sceptical about flying saucers, space abduction and parapsychology, and those who might feel sceptical about allergy and the dangers of chemical additives? After all, allergic response to modern chemical manufacturing processes, like response to food additives, is fairly common ground between a good many allopathic doctors, scientists and nutritionists. There was an incessant preoccupation with Uri Geller, and the reality of the Loch Ness monster. The article included a full page which detailed the damage which might be caused by the use of alternative remedies. Instances of this are scattered through the British Medical Association Report like a recurring alarm bell... In Britain, the drinking of herbal tea has been known to lead to deaths from fulminant hepatic fever. Acupuncture needles have been found combined with kidney stones and have had to be surgically removed from the chest and the abdomen. Throughout 1987 and 1988, those who were to become the Council Against Health Fraud expressed views about alternative medicine through the pages of the British and Irish Skeptic. Only religious groups on the very fringe were attacked, especially if they put forward views about diet and healing. There was no philosophical discourse about the nature of religion itself, no criticism either of the Catholic Church, the Church of England or the Mormons and no comments upon the wealthy Evangelical churches. Diets of all kinds which take people away from their consumption of processed foods are always described as a confidence trick, though evidence is rarely supplied. There is a depressing uniformity about so many of the longer articles in both the Skeptical Inquirer, the New Humanist, the British and Irish Skeptic and the Skeptic. Most of the articles lack creativity and appear as if they have been computed from a databank. All these alternative therapies promise you so much more than conventional medicine. Again, it is a good example of how arguments disfigured by covert interests turn reality upon its head. Might not poverty in the underdeveloped world be a consequence of unbridled industrial, scientific and technological development in the developed world? In whose interest would it be to suggest that an interest in natural medicine impoverishes the Third World? Do the pharmaceutical companies not make even greater profits by dumping harmful drugs on the underdeveloped countries so helping to disrupt hundreds of years of natural medical practice? This particular article, however, raises much more serious questions about the British and Irish Skeptic than it does about medicine. Are we really meant to believe that Heap remembered the details of all the conversations which he had at the Exhibition of Alternative Medicine three years previously? It might occur to some people that there was a considerable advantage in writing about an exhibition which was held three years ago, in that nothing which was said in the article can be seriously questioned. Chapter Nineteen From the Table to the Grave: The British Nutrition Foundation In the drug business, the Drug Institute is the over-all association... These associations not only oppose the enactment of laws which limit dishonesty, but work consistently to prevent the rigorous enforcement of the inadequate laws 1 which are enacted. Animals and crops take in pesticide residues from grass or hay, nitrates from fertilizers and even de-icing chemicals from the wings of aeroplanes have now found their way into the water supply. It becomes increasingly difficult to understand what we are eating and the effect it will ultimately have on our bodies and minds. Food production and consumption in the modern world have nothing to do with nutrition or health. We have radically departed from the path of simple nutritious food and strayed into a world where we take into our system, as if in a dream, a wide range of toxic substances which play no part in constructing a healthy body. The chemical companies, the pharmaceutical companies, agribusiness, the processed food industry, the water supply companies and the health care sectors represent a global market for chemicals. Firms which are a part of this market tend to have the same marketing strategies, the same friends — and the same enemies. Powerful vested interests have tried to ensure that the public does not make links between food and 3 health.

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The nipple should be assessed for discharge and the axillary and supraclavicular regions should be examined for adenopathy order super avana toronto depression and erectile dysfunction causes. Murmurs should be classified according to intensity order super avana 160 mg on-line erectile dysfunction treatment washington dc, duration purchase super avana 160 mg without prescription causes of erectile dysfunction in 50s, timing in the cardiac cycle, and changes with various maneu- vers. Systolic murmurs are very common and often physiologic; diastolic murmurs are uncommon and usually pathologic. Pulmonary examination: The lung fields should be examined systemati- cally and thoroughly. Percussion of the lung fields may be helpful in identifying the hyperresonance of tension pneumothorax, or the dullness of consolidated pneumonia or a pleural effusion. Abdominal examination: The abdomen should be inspected for scars, dis- tension, or discoloration (such as the Grey Turner sign of discoloration at the flank areas indicating intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal hemor- rhage). Auscultation of bowel sounds to identify normal versus high- pitched and hyperactive versus hypoactive. Percussion of the abdomen can be utilized to assess the size of the liver and spleen, and to detect ascites by noting shifting dullness. Careful palpation should begin ini- tially away from the area of pain, involving one hand on top of the other, to assess for masses, tenderness, and peritoneal signs. Tenderness should be recorded on a scale (eg, 1 to 4 where 4 is the most severe pain). Back and spine examination: The back should be assessed for symmetry, tenderness, and masses. The flank regions are particularly important to assess for pain on percussion, which might indicate renal disease. Females: The pelvic examination should include an inspection of the external genitalia, and with the speculum, evaluation of the vagina and cervix. A bimanual examination to assess the size, shape, and tenderness of the uterus and adnexa is important. Palpation for hernias in the inguinal region with the patient coughing to increase intra- abdominal pressure is useful. Rectal examination: A digital rectal examination is generally performed for those individuals with possible colorectal disease, or gastrointestinal bleed- ing. Extremities: An examination for joint effusions, tenderness, edema, and cyanosis may be helpful. Clubbing of the nails might indicate pulmonary diseases such as lung cancer or chronic cyanotic heart disease. Neurological examination: Patients who present with neurological com- plaints usually require a thorough assessment, including the mental status, cranial nerves, motor strength, sensation, and reflexes. The skin should be carefully examined for evidence of pigmented lesions (melanoma), cyanosis, or rashes that may indicate systemic disease (malar rash of systemic lupus erythematosus). Urinalysis is often referred to as a “liquid renal biopsy,” because the presence of cells, casts, protein, or bacteria provides clues about under- lying glomerular or tubular diseases. Gram stain and culture of urine, sputum, and cerebrospinal fluid, as well as blood cultures, are frequently useful to isolate the cause of infection. Chest radiography is extremely useful in assessing cardiac size and con- tour, chamber enlargement, pulmonary vasculature and infiltrates, and the presence of pleural effusions. Ultrasonographic examination is useful for identifying fluid-solid inter- faces, and for characterizing masses as cystic, solid, or complex. It is also very helpful in evaluating the biliary tree, kidney size, and evidence of Clinical Pearl ➤ Ultrasonography is helpful in evaluating the biliary tree,looking for ureteral obstruction,and evaluating vascular structures,but has limited utility in obese patients. Ultrasonography is noninvasive and has no radiation risk, but cannot be used to penetrate through bone or air, and is less useful in obese patients. Echocardiography: Uses ultrasonography to delineate the car- diac size, function, ejection fraction, and presence of valvular dysfunction. Angiography: Radiopaque dye is injected into various vessels and radiographs or fluoroscopic images are used to determine the vascu- lar occlusion, cardiac function, or valvular integrity. Nuclear medicine imaging of the heart can be added to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the test. Individuals who cannot run on the treadmill (such as those with severe arthritis), may be given medications such as adenosine or dobutamine to “stress” the heart. The first diagnostic concern of most patients and physicians regarding chest pain is angina pectoris, that is, the pain of myocardial ischemia caused by coronary insufficiency. Distinguishing angina pectoris from other causes of chest pain relies upon two important factors: the clinical history, and an understanding of how to use objective testing. In making the diagnosis of angina pectoris, the clinician must establish whether the pain satisfies the three criteria for typical anginal pain: (1) retrosternal in location, (2) precipitated by exertion, and (3) relieved within minutes by rest or nitroglycerin. Then, the clinician considers other factors, such as patient age and other risk factors, to determine a pretest probability for angina pectoris. After a pretest probability is estimated by applying some combination of sta- tistical data, epidemiology of the disease, and clinical experience, the next deci- sion is whether and how to use an objective test. For example, a 21-year-old woman with chest pain that is not exertional and not relieved by rest or nitroglycerin has a very low pretest probability of coronary artery disease, and any positive results on a cardiac stress test are very likely to be false positive. Any test result is unlikely to change her management; thus, the test should not be obtained. Similarly, a 69-year-old diabetic smoker with a recent coronary angioplasty who now has recurrent episodes of typical angina has a very high pretest probability that the pain is a result of myocardial ischemia. One could argue that a negative cardiac stress test is likely to be a falsely negative, and that the clinician should proceed directly to a coronary angiography to assess for a repeat angioplasty. Diagnostic tests, therefore, are usually most useful for those patients in the midranges of pretest probabilities in whom a positive or negative test will move the clinician past some decision threshold. Patients are monitored on an electrocardiogram, while they perform graded exer- cise on a treadmill. If one knows the sensitivity and specificity of the test used, one can calculate the likelihood ratio of the positive test as sensitivity/(1– specificity). Posttest probability is calculated by multiplying the positive likelihood ratio by the pretest probability, or plot the probabilities using a nomogram (see Figure I–1). Thus, knowing something about the characteristics of the test you are employing, and how to apply them to the patient at hand is essential in reach- ing a correct diagnosis and avoid falling into the common trap of “positive test = disease” and “negative test = no disease. Nomogram illustrating the relationship between pretest probability, posttest probability, and likelihood ratio. Approach to Clinical Problem Solving There are typically four distinct steps to the systematic solving of clinical problems: 1. Experienced clinicians often make a diagnosis very quickly using pattern recognition, that is, the features of the patient’s illness match a scenario the physician has seen before. If it does not fit a readily recognized pattern, then one has to undertake several steps in diagnostic reasoning: 1. The clinician should start considering diagnostic possibilities with initial contact with the patient which are continually refined as information is gathered. Historical questions and physical examination tests and findings are all pursued tailored to the potential diagnoses one is considering. The next step is to try to move from subjective complaints or nonspecific symptoms to focus on objective abnormalities in an effort to conceptualize the patient’s objective problem with the greatest specificity one can achieve. For example, a patient may come to the physician complaining of pedal edema, a relatively common and nonspecific finding.

In a few minutes the patient and unknown causes develops tachycardia buy cheap super avana 160 mg on-line erectile dysfunction usmle, seizures and coma order super avana 160mg with amex impotence by age, leading Before classifying a patient in this category it is to death [56] purchase 160 mg super avana erectile dysfunction in a young male. As soon as the diagnosis is suspected important to be sure that the diagnostic work-up the patient should be turned onto the left side. Amniotic emboli occur after difficult deliveries in Sometimes the etiology is found during the follow-up. The patient develops acute pulmonary edema and seizures Risk factors for stroke in the young [11, 57]. Fat emboli occur in long bone fractures or Classic risk factors liposuction surgery [58]. Classic risk factors for stroke (arterial hypertension, smoking and hypercholesterolemia) are also risk Choriocarcinoma factors in the young, but the attributable risk is lower Choriocarcinoma is a malignant trophoblastic tumor than in older patients. More specific risk factors in the young Rare causes of cerebral ischemia in young people Oral contraceptive therapy of undetermined mechanism Oral contraceptive therapy increases the risk of ische- Sweet syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic mic stroke even with compounds with low-dose estro- dermatosis) is a dermatological disorder gens: the relative risk of cerebral ischemia is 2. This dermatological case of cerebral ischemia can be attributed to oral disorder has accompanying features of systemic contraceptive therapy for 5880 women without vas- inflammation such as fever, conjunctivitis or other cular risk factors treated during 1 year [64]. Migraine Kawasaki syndrome is a panarteritis of arteries of Migraine is associated with a relative risk of ischemic 212 intermediate and small caliber that may lead to stroke of 3. Those studies used different age aura and stroke is not an artifact, although none of limits, and may have suffered recruitment bias in these studies can be considered as providing a definite specialized centers [7, 10, 25, 73]. It is less clear whether migraine studies were conducted in small samples, were retro- without aura is associated with stroke or whether spective, had a partial follow-up [15, 19, 22, 23, 71, 73, the association is restricted to migraine with aura. The concept Mortality of migrainous infarct is not proven: it requires exclu- The mortality rate is low in the short and intermedi- sion of other causes and a typical temporal relation- ate term [7, 8, 10, 15–23, 25, 73]. In the Lille cohort ship, the neurological deficit being a prolongation of a of 287 patients aged between 15 and 45 years, with a typical aura. A study per year during the next 2 years, and that of myocar- conducted in high-risk women, i. In cervical artery already had an ischemic stroke, showed no significant dissections the risk of recurrent stroke is very low increase in incidence of recurrent stroke during [2, 38, 39, 76, 77]. Stroke occurring during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of Epilepsy maternal death [68–70]. Epilepsy is more frequent after an ischemic stroke in a Classic risk factors for stroke: arterial hypertension, young patient than stroke recurrence, with a risk at smoking, hypercholesterolemia. Most patients had Migraine: the relative risk of ischemic stroke is post-stroke epilepsy and the first seizure during the 3. Quality of life Outcome Even if most patients remained independent, many Studies that evaluated the long-term outcome of of them lost their job or divorced during the 3 years young stroke patients are heterogeneous and can after the ischemic stroke [7]. Their findings are influenced systematic evaluation it is difficult to identify the by the inclusion or not of all types of stroke, includ- reason, but depression, fatigue, mild cognitive or 213 ing intracerebral ischemia [10, 19, 23, 71, 72], behavioral changes or alteration in social cognition Section 3: Diagnostics and syndromes are likely explanations. Stroke prevention measures should in young people are frequently associated with a take into account that short- and long-term mortality decline in quality of life that is not explained by rates are low, and that the overall risk of new vascular handicap [5, 7, 17]. The specificities of stroke prevention in young adults are the following: (i) oral contraceptive therapy Pregnancy after an ischemic stroke should be avoided in most cases; (ii) in the absence of A multicenter French study [79] conducted with 373 evidence-based data, cervical artery dissections may consecutive women who had an ischemic stroke be treated either by antiplatelet therapy or by anti- between 15 and 40 years of age and followed-up over coagulation [80], but, because of the low rate of recur- a 5-year period found an overall risk of recurrent rence after the 4th week, there is no reason to give stroke of 0. Risk of epilepsy after an ischemic stroke attitude is inappropriate at that time; (vi) young is 5–7% at 3 years. Behavioral changes and dystonia women should be informed what to do in the event in children are frequent sequelae. Secondary prevention after ischemic An important question that remains unanswered stroke in young adults is how long young patients should receive antiplatelet The main characteristics of ischemic stroke occurring therapy after an ischemic stroke when the diagnostic in young patients, i. Due to the low risk of recurrence outcome and interference with hormonal life in in patients without any risk factor, the reasons for women (contraception, pregnancy and future meno- continuing antiplatelet therapy for more than a few pause), influence secondary prevention after stroke. As for elderly subjects, secondary prevention meas- ures mainly depend on the presumed cause. For this Secondary prevention measures mainly depend on the presumed cause and consist of an optimal reason, an extensive and early diagnostic work-up is management of vascular risk factors, an appropri- required, as well as an extensive evaluation of risk ate antithrombotic therapy and removal of the factors. Chapter 14: Ischemic stroke in the young and in children Chapter Summary Specificities of stroke prevention in young adults: oral contraceptive therapy should be avoided in Diagnostic work-up (additionally to the standard most cases; cervical artery dissections may be treated work-up as in older patients): either by antiplatelet therapy or by anticoagulation Intensive patient interview about the presence of (oral anticoagulation only for a few weeks); due to headache, tinnitus, drug abuse, family history; the low risk of recurrence in patients without any careful skin examination; careful fundoscopic risk factor, the reasons for continuing antiplatelet examination; and in selected patients serology therapy more than a few years are rather weak. Treatment and secondary Post-irradiation cervical arteriopathies prevention of stroke: evidence, costs, and effects on Cervical fibromuscular dysplasia of cervical individuals and populations. Global mortality, disability, Intracranial dissections and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden Moyamoya of Disease Study. High stroke incidence in the prospective community-based disorder L’Aquila registry (1994–1998). Incidence and Post-partum cerebral angiopathy and eclampsia survival rates during a two-year period of intracerebral Unruptured aneurysms of intracranial arteries and subarachnoid haemorrhages, cortical infarcts, Hematological disorders lacunes and transient ischaemic attacks. The Stroke Metabolic disorders such as Fabry disease, homo- Registry of Dijon: 1985–1989. Clinical outcome Choriocarcinoma in 287 consecutive young adults (15 to 45 years) with ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke in patients cervical artery dissection, and in non-industrialized under age 45. Incidence and short-term outcome of cerebral infarction in young adults in western Norway. Long-term prognosis Secondary prevention measures mainly depend on of cerebral ischemia in young adults. National the presumed cause and consist of optimal manage- Research Council Study Group on Stroke in the ment of vascular risk factors, an appropriate anti- Young. Incidence and causes antithrombotic agents, depending on the cause), of strokes associated with pregnancy and puerperium. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke developments in childhood arterial ischaemic stroke. Guidelines for management of ischaemic stroke and atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke in young patients. Ischemic association of atrial vulnerability with atrial septal stroke in young adults. Experience in 329 patients abnormalities in young patients with ischemic stroke enrolled in the Iowa Registry of stroke in young adults. Stroke in the young in South prevalence of atrial septal aneurysms in patients with Africa – an analysis of 320 patients. Natl Med J India 1997; autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical 10:107–12. Fetal bradycardia and spontaneous cervical artery dissection: a case-control disseminated coagulopathy: atypical presentation of study. Sweet’s syndrome – a comprehensive review of an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis. Janssens E, Hommel M, Mounier-Vehier F, Leclerc X, in Kawasaki syndrome and management of its Guerin du Masgenet B, Leys D.

Agents that block production unclear and may represent a continuation of alternatives discount super avana 160 mg without prescription erectile dysfunction at age 28, and formulate a detailed plan of This causes sustained release of noradrena- or action of angiotensin antenatal hypertension (recurrent) or appear- management during pregnancy super avana 160 mg impotence symptoms signs. They reduce angiotensin and aldosterone sion may result in maternal mortality and vas- ports treating severe hypertension in preg- chronic administration include hydralazine- production and thus decrease peripheral vas- cular complications such as stroke buy super avana with paypal erectile dysfunction hand pump. They are widely used to treat these risks, few data indicate the best method tensive drug therapy in a patient with a mild hypertension in the non-pregnant state partic- for managing women who develop hyperten- to moderate rise in blood pressure are still ularly if complicated by renal insuffciency or sion after delivery. There is no evidence that the in pregnancy remains controversial because of treating mild to moderate disease, particu- breakdown of bradykinin, and thus are less commonly used antihypertensive drugs such of the potential to reduce or prevent physi- larly when to start drug treatment and which likely to cause persistent dry cough. There is regular use of antihypertensive drugs for post- pregnancy, because they are associated with channel blockers (nifedipine) are associated limited evidence that diuretics prevent plasma natal hypertension, little evidence exists for increased risk of fetal anomalies. Their bearing age as a signifcant proportion of preg- be carefully discussed with the women by an mal breast milk to maternal plasma ratios and use in pregnancy is rare; however, terato- nancies are unplanned. Magnesium plus nifedipine: potentiation Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161:115–9 pre-eclampsia at antenatal booking: sys- during therapy with antihypertensive drugs. The link between childbirth and severe mental illness has been described for hundreds if not Despite the widespread focus on postpartum thousands of years1, but postpartum episodes depression, a wide variety of psychiatric dis- orders occur in relation to parturition – both are not merely of historical interest. These disorders in the perinatal period are of great include anxiety disorders, chronic psychoses public health importance in the 21st century such as schizophrenia, eating disorders and – as illustrated by a number of cases in which substance misuse. Pregnancy impacts on each women suffering from severe illness have of these conditions, and each, in turn, can have killed themselves or harmed their infants2, a signifcant effect on antenatal and postnatal and by the fndings of the Confdential Enquir- care. Although many poten- undoubted clinical importance, perinatal men- tial conditions may occur, attention is often tal illness has not received the attention, both focused on mood disorders and the trio of in terms of clinical practice and research, that baby blues, postpartum depression and post- it clearly deserves. The decision to start a family is fraught with The blues – over 50% of women experience diffculties for women with a history of severe a brief episode of minor mood change in the frst postpartum week8. Such limiting, last no more than a few days, do not couples face a number of important questions require treatment and should not be consid- and often encounter diffculties accessing the ered a ‘disorder’. This chapter reviews Postpartum depression – signifcant depres- what is known about severe mental illness in sive symptoms occur following more than relation to pregnancy and childbirth. Episodes of major depression of childbirth impacting their illness, diffcult at this time may cause signifcant emotional decisions regarding medication in pregnancy, impairment and lead to severe long-term and questions that women and their partners consequences. Duration Few days Weeks to months Weeks to months of the term ‘postpartum depression’ to refer Symptoms Depressed mood, Depressed mood, lack of Elated, irritable or depressed to all forms of psychological distress follow- Each will be considered in turn. This inappropri- What are the implications of pregnancy and hallucinations, rapidly ate usage not only trivializes severe episodes and childbirth on the psychiatric illness? Antipsychotic medication, future pregnancies, but also supports the inap- Although the link between severe psychiatric intervention exercise, computerized antidepressant medication, propriate labeling as a psychiatric disorder of a disorder and childbirth is well established, the cognitive behavioral therapy mood stabilizers (e. Most often may This chapter focuses on the care of women These surprising fndings have been attrib- be treated at home but severe with pre-existing severe mental illness remem- uted to methodological problems in terms of cases may need admission bering, of course, that many women experi- appropriate comparison groups. Although severe mental illness can the Danish psychiatric admission and birth be defned in various manners, here it includes registries demonstrated a ‘selection into par- women with a history of a psychotic illness enthood’ bias, in that women who become Postpartum psychosis – the most severe forms puerperium. Accordingly, the continuation such as schizophrenia or those with a severe mothers are a group at lower risk for psychi- of postpartum mood disorder have tradition- of a chronic psychosis such as schizophrenia mood disorder (bipolar disorder or severe atric disorders15 and studies taking this into ally been labeled as postpartum (or puerperal) would not be appropriately labeled as a post- 11 recurrent unipolar depression). The term ‘postpartum psycho- tum psychosis and depression are not sepa- In contrast, clear evidence supports a specifc include: sis’ is usually used to refer to the new onset, rate nosological entities, but merely repre- relationship to childbirth for episodes of severe although not necessarily the frst episode, of sent episodes of mood disorder triggered by • What are the implications of pregnancy affective psychosis and for bipolar disorder, a severe affective psychosis in the immediate childbirth. A previous with a history of schizophrenia, with Scandi- history of admission with bipolar disorder was navian register studies documenting increased 15 associated with an even larger increased risk postpartum admission rates15,23. For bipolar psychosis are at particularly high risk, with disorder, the risk is for the new onset of an epi- Figure 2 Increased risk of admission following delivery compared to at other times in a woman’s life for greater than 1 in 2 deliveries being affected18,19 sode of severe affective psychosis. Postpartum episodes on the bipo- women with schizophrenia may be admitted from reference 15 lar spectrum present a characteristic and close for different reasons, due to diffculties in par- temporal relationship to childbirth. For women or their partners who have suf- postpartum, with the majority being on days ety of psychiatric disorders, it is women with fered episodes of illness themselves, on the 1–320. Familial factors have been implicated in a history of bipolar disorder who are at a par- In addition to considering the effects of preg- other hand, it is still likely that the true risk the vulnerability to postpartum triggering of ticularly high risk of a severe recurrence. Table 2 gives the families with a history of severe mental illness approximate lifetime risk of mood disorder have another issue to consider when starting a for children of a parent with bipolar I disor- 1000 family. There are few data to give meaningful ric disorders run in families, and family, twin estimates for more distant family members, 900 and adoption studies have confrmed a high but available evidence suggests rates that are 800 levels of hereditability for many severe mental between those for frst degree relatives and 700 illnesses24. These fgures can be 570 600 rienced illness themselves or witnessed frst used as very approximate ‘order of magnitude’ 500 hand the suffering of a family member and be guides and, with appropriate caveats, can be concerned about passing on this risk to their used to provide information to women and 400 260 children; on occasion, the risk to offspring may their partners. Relationship to child Lifetime risk of bipolar I disorder Lifetime risk of major depression women studied had a severe form of unipolar Decisions regarding the fnal choice of pos- General population 0. It is disappointing that even for medications include teratogenicity, toxicity or sionals should not shirk their responsibility sure to two medications and the second drug a medication such as lithium that has been in withdrawal symptoms in the newborn as well to advise on appropriate options. Fully docu- may not have the effcacy of the original; and, use for over half a century, the sum total of the as the less certain risks of long-term devel- menting the nature and extent of any discus- fnally, continuing the current medication with world literature is not even 200 prospective opmental and cognitive problems in children sion is clearly important. Weighed When it comes to the decision about which Clearly, there are no easy answers, and again the situation is certainly better for medications against these risks, however, are the risks of medication to use, it is important to consider a full and individualized risk–beneft analysis used in psychiatry and additionally used in the untreated psychiatric disorders, including the drugs with the best evidence of reproduc- is important and should be meticulously doc- treatment of epilepsy, but there are potentially risk of a severe recurrence of illness. However, an individual woman’s umented in the patient record which should important differences in how medications are of studies implicate psychiatric disorder as history of response to various medications also state that the analysis had been accepted having important consequences on pregnancy, prescribed in other disorders, for example in 25 is clearly of vital importance. Rather, it is more lar history, additional factors that increase risk women with unipolar and/or bipolar disorder appropriate to deal in general principles that Inadvertent conception on medication include having experienced a previous episode who discontinue medication in order to con- should guide care. In a naturalistic study of 89 women with bipolar In an ideal world, all women with a history of and having a frst degree relative who has expe- severe mental illness would seek advice on a rienced an episode of postpartum psychosis18. In addition, should be asked about the above risk factors clearly carry a higher risk than others, sodium recurrence risk has been described in women the regularly estimated 50% of pregnancies and protocols should be put in place to ensure valproate being a prime example, each deci- with unipolar depression. Of 201 euthymic that are unplanned may even be higher in that women at potential risk receive a formal sion should involve consideration of a complex women with a history of major mental disor- women with severe mental illness. Therefore, patients with a Another major consideration is how to illness, pregnancy raises a number of diff- the importance of seeking help if contemplat- history of mental illness who might become cult issues. Severe recurrences are common in determine what level of information women ing pregnancy (or if unexpectedly becoming pregnant are well advised to supplement as a relationship to childbirth, and for women with want or are able to assimilate. Many fessionals need to be sensitive to differences of pregnancies are unplanned, all women with For women at risk, perhaps the most impor- medications used to keep women well are of between individual women and, wherever pos- childbearing potential merit thorough consid- tant aspect of management is to maintain known or potential teratogenicity, but stop- sible, individualize the information as well as eration of potential pregnancy when making close contact with their health care profession- ping medication may be associated with a very the manner in which it is delivered. The same data, nition that, due to its particular teratogenic other avoidable factors that may increase risk that these are issues that must be discussed delivered in a variety of manners, can confer and developmental effects, sodium valproate with all women with reproductive potential. Health care profes- Clearly, the earlier potential pregnancy is should not be used in women in their repro- example, and paying attention to sleep pat- sionals must be aware of their own biases and considered the better; many months or even ductive years if it can be avoided30. No universal recommendations exists for the use of lithium in this context , Information should be provided in a user- women in the preconception, antenatal and can be made, and the decision ultimately must but the few studies conducted have been open friendly manner. Stopping and retrospective, and there are practical prob- given in absolute rather than relative terms medication should always be a carefully con- lems with obtaining therapeutic levels quickly with a uniform denominator30. Why Mothers Die, It is easy to focus exclusively on medication First, it is important to consider the strength feelings with her partner, friends and family. Adv Psychiatr of hospitalization for postpartum psychotic and Treat 2009; in press bipolar episodes in women with and without prior prepregnancy or prenatal psychiatric hos- 12. A eradication, homelessness, alcohol and drug staggering one-third of the world’s population use, and increased immigration from coun- tries with endemic tuberculosis8 (Figure 1). The non-specifc nature of these aerosolized particles lodge in the host’s alve- skin test is the oldest test in continual use, disease after a period of latency beyond 2 symptoms, as well as the often ill-informed oli, where alveolar macrophages encounter years. For these reasons, health care pro- a susceptible host, a process resulting in three two frst-line drugs, isoniazid and rifampicin, of progression within the frst 2 years. Another prospective cohort The recommended treatment regimen is 6 Mycobacteriology laboratory employee nations and without previous vaccination as study that examined the effects of extra- months of isoniazid plus pyridoxine.

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They have the disadvantage of not being very effective if the tidal volume and minute ventilation are high cheap 160 mg super avana erectile dysfunction treatment online, and tend to increase dead space cheap 160mg super avana erectile dysfunction treatment michigan. Active humidifiers are more effective and have an active heating device with temperature control and sensors to maintain the correct humidity and temperature order super avana 160 mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction 5gs. As mentioned above, modern ventilators attempt to supplement and support the patient’s own respiration as far as possible. In pressure control ventilation, a fixed inspiratory pressure is applied during inspiration. Expansion of the lung is limited by the pressure Ventilation 108 Handbook of Critical Care Medicine which is applied. When the recoil pressure of the lung equals the applied pressure, or when the inspiratory time ends, inspiration ends. The volume of air entering the lungs during the inspiratory phase will depend on the compliance of the lung. If the compliance is low, the lung will expand to a lesser degree than if the compliance is high. Volume control ventilation is more widely used in critically ill patients, because the lung volumes are more predictable, and will be discussed here. Before we discuss the commonly used modes, there are two other important settings that are briefly mentioned. Pressure support: this is the amount of pressure applied at the start of the inspiratory cycle, i. Pressure support makes it easier for the patient to breathe in, and takes away the dead space. Pressure support is not present in ventilator timed breaths, only in spontaneous breaths. It helps to keep the airways open, since if the pressure within the airways fall to zero, the airways will collapse. Paralysis is required in certain circumstances; however, in general the ventilator supplements and assists the patient’s natural breaths. Ventilator breaths are usually triggered by the inspiratory effort made by the patient. When the patient makes a respiratory effort, a negative pressure is applied to the inspiratory valve. When this negative pressure exceeds a certain value (usually around negative 2mmHg), inspiration is ‘triggered’ - the valve opens and inspiration begins. When the inspiratory flow falls below a certain value, the inspiratory valve closes, and expiration begins. Ventilation 109 Handbook of Critical Care Medicine Assist control ventilation In this mode, a tidal volume and respiratory rate are set on the machine. Every inspiratory effort triggers the machine to deliver a full breath of the set tidal volume. If the patient’s own respiratory rate is less than the set respiratory rate, the ventilator will ensure that the required breaths are given. Let us take an example where the set rate is 14 breaths per minute, and the tidal volume is 500ml. Each time the patient attempts to take a breath, the ventilator will deliver a tidal volume of 500ml. The disadvantage is that if the patient’s respiratory rate is high, the minute ventilation can be significantly high, resulting in respiratory alkalosis. However the additional breaths will not have the same tidal volume as the set tidal volume, and will be spontaneous breaths. The tidal volume of these breaths will depend on the respiratory effort, and the amount of pressure support applied. Ventilation 110 Handbook of Critical Care Medicine For example, if the patient has a spontaneous rate of 20, and the set rate is 14 with tidal volume of 500ml, the patient will receive 14 breaths with a tidal volume of 500mL. The remaining 6 breaths will have a tidal volume depending on the patient’s respiratory effort, airway resistance, and the pressure support. The higher the pressure support, the larger the tidal volume of these breaths (because in effect these breaths are similar to pressure control ventilation). If respiratory alkalosis develops, the respiratory drive will fall, and the patient will breathe less frequently. Because there is a mandatory set rate, the required minimum minute ventilation is ensured. Spontaneous ventilation with pressure support In this form of ventilation, there is no set rate or tidal volume. The inspired tidal volume depends on the respiratory effort, airway resistance, and the pressure support. Usually however, the machine has a minimum limit, and if the patient does not breathe adequately the alarm will sound, and the machine will take over and ventilate the patient. This mode is an effective weaning mode – if the pressure support is sufficiently low, and the patient’s respiratory parameters and blood gases are adequate, he is probably ready for extubation. A pressure support of approximately 8mmHg is just sufficient to take away the dead space effect of the endotracheal tube. Choice of ventilator modes and settings These depend on the requirements of the patient. Neuromuscular blockade is usually required, although if the patient has little spontaneous respiration this could be done without. How to determine the initial settings in a patient who has just been ventilated The usual set rate will be between 10 and 14 breaths per minute. The tidal volume is usually between 6 and 12 ml/kg body weight, preferably closer to 6ml/kg. Start with a high FiO2, and then reduce it to maintain a pulse oxygen saturation of over 95%. The ratio between the inspiratory time and expiratory time must also be set; this is known as the I:E ratio and is generally between 1:2 and 1:1. Note that these values are just rough guides, and will depend on the individual patient, and underlying condition. This can be done by the following Ventilation 112 Handbook of Critical Care Medicine o Suctioning out bronchial secretions which are blocking the airways and causing collapse of distal alveoli. Increasing the minute ventilation is not a useful manoeuvre to improve oxygenation. This can be done by reducing the set rate or reducing the tidal volume and the pressure support. Biphasic ventilation Biphasic ventilation is another mode of ventilation where the machine controls only pressure, which moves up and down within a lower and upper baseline. If the patient is breathing spontaneously, the spontaneous breaths are freely superimposed on the moving pressure baseline.

The focus here will be presentation on the LiSat-11 ences discount super avana express erectile dysfunction epilepsy medication, Rehab Medicine purchase super avana 160mg without prescription erectile dysfunction drugs in bangladesh, Lahore cheap super avana 160 mg on line impotence hernia, Pakistan from the participating clinics. Results and Conclusion: The pre- liminary results indicate that, irrespective of country and clinic, life Introduction/Background: Stroke is the leading cause of neurologi- satisfaction is perceived as dissatisfying post stroke. The presentation will preferably be Sometimes they have to make quick decisions regarding diagnosis in a symposium where presenters from four of the countries (Nor- and management. Questionnaire was constructed using textbooks of medicine and current stroke guide- lines. Having a Family member 1 Hannover Medical School, Rehabilitation Medicine, Hannover, with stroke was associated with higher confdence in diagnoses of 2 Germany, Hannover Medical School, Clinical Immunology and stroke (p<0. Majority of the respondents correctly Rheumatology, Hannover, Germany defned stroke (60. Conclusion: different types of chronic musculoskeletal pains with their clinical This multi-center survey shows that knowledge and confdence lev- parameters, such as pain and mood-related behaviour (e. Therefore, in this study we determined subset regarding initial diagnosis and management of stroke is adequate in of immune cells in chronic pain patients and compared them with most domains. Different types of immune cells were determined tion Hospital, Faculty of Health, 2Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospi- by using fuorescence-activated cell sorting. QoL may be affected by the individu- depression score in all chronic musculoskeletal pain patients is cor- als’ health, psychological state, level of independence, social rela- related with the percentage of lymphocytes (R: –0. Life satisfaction is considered Subgroup analysis of each group of patients show that depression purely subjective and related to goals. A salute-genic interpretation of the QoL concept may clusion: Taken together, it seems immune cells play a role in patho- combine the global, external, interpersonal and personal resources mechanism of chronic musculoskeletal pain. The microstroke was radiation can promote myoblasts proliferation and inhibit differen- induced by two-photon laser irradiation. Secondly, among 1The Second Affliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, the three groups, there were signifcant more neuron death, micro- Rehabilitation Medicine, Chongqing, China glia and astrocyte in T2 (p<0. How- Zhibin3 ever, for all the three Finglimod concentrations, there is no differ- 1University-Town Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Reha- entiation signifcant difference between neurons and astrocytes. Proliferating myoblasts ir- radiated for 6 consecutive days and differentiating myoblasts for 4 Introduction/Background: Diabetes mellitus affect gait ability due consecutive days. The aim of the study to evaluate the effect of tected by immunofuorescence staining. Diabetes induced by streptozotozin injection (45 mg/kg ip) combined with high fat diet fed ad libitum. Introduction/Background: Since the new constitution of 2011, the management of disability in Morocco has become a constitutional right. Material and Meth- 1 2 1 1 ods: We have consulted the Moroccan action plan on health and T. Chou 1Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Physical Medicine and Reha- disability 2015–2021 and all the offcial documents of the Ministry of Health on disability in Morocco. It was prepared on the basis of a participatory approach common source of anterior knee pain. The main etiologies of pa- in partnership with various institutional partners, civil society and tella lateral subluxation are: abnormal bony structure and muscle international organizations. This is to strengthen the programs and actions of the leading cause for muscle imbalance of the lower extremity. Material and Meth- angular velocity 60 rad/s, 120 rad/s and 180 rad/s, while there were ods: Five hemiplegic chronic stroke patients in this study received no signifcant changes of torque during the three angular velocity 6 sessions of visual feedback balance training program in 2 weeks test. The patients presented remarkable improvement after receiv- using stabilometric platform. To evaluate the effects of the training, t-test was performed for normally distributed data and Wilcoxon matched pair test for not normally distributed data. Results: Functional balance per- formance score were improved after the intervention (p=0. Conclusion: 1 1 1 Visual biofeedback balance training improves functional balance in T. Chen 1 sensory integration and dynamic balance categories, however the Changhua Christian Hospital, Dept. This study compared the effects of analyze the differences among three groups at different time-points. Material and Methods: 84 participants with chronic stroke Tardieu score at elbow fexors (β: –20. Evidence on recruitment of mirror Introduction/Background: Providing visual biofeedback while per- neurons will be discussed. Results: No major adverse events were noted Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, 2Shimizu Hospital, Department of Reha- in the study. Conclusion: This pilot study showed that mechanisms of action have been reported, all with the single aim a pseudoelastic orthotic treatment can promote moderate reacquisi- of reducing pain and improving functional status. Material and Methods: A randomized clinical trial ing tool for identifying patterns of movement in evaluation tasks was conducted at the department of Physical Medicine and Reha- and monitoring variations during the therapy; this resource could bilitation in Dhaka Medical College Hospital to assess the improve- be used in future for implementing home-based tele-rehabilitation. Sig- and Interphases, Lecco, Italy, 2Politecnico di Milano, Electronics- nifcantly greater improvements were shown in all outcome meas- Information and Bioengineering, Milano, Italy, 3Neurologic Insti- ures with the laser group than with the placebo group (p<0. Introduction/Background: Movement disorders are neurological diseases affecting different age groups. Three pae- nico di Milano, Electronics- Information and Bioengineering, diatric patients with dystonic and dyskinetic cerebral palsy were Milano, Italy, 3Ospedale Valduce - Clinica Villa Beretta, Rehabili- enrolled so far. The purpose of this study is to evaluate limb anatomy, kinematics and muscular activation to be employed if those orthoses with pseudoelastic characteristics can improve pos- as a basis for the personalised fabrication of the splints. Results: The frst obser- of patients and orthoses during standardised motor tasks. Only the peak pressure of Physical Therapy, Cebu City, Philippines the heel region decreased using vibro- medical insole with random noise compared to without random noise (p=0. This work suggests that vibro- duction in the weight bearing capacity of a stroke patient, the body medical insole can be used for daily living activity to overcome becomes unstable due to increased postural sways and reduced sensory loss and probably decrease the risk of ulceration in diabetic static reactions. The training was composed of warming-up; bal- thopaedics, Dhka, Bangladesh, 3Mymensingh Medical College ance, coordination, muscular strength and mobility tasks; and cool- and Hospital, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mymensingh, ing down. In conjunct group and between the two groups were analyzed using paired t- with other conservative treatment an interesting non-drug therapy test at p-value of 0. Material and Methods: Objective: To eval- ance scores among chronic stroke patients. Bah- jective pain intensity, visual analogue scale, tenderness index, Ron- ramizadeh , S. After treatment the result was compared and student’s Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Department of Orthot- ‘t’ test was done to see the level of signifcance. Method was found ics and Prosthetics, Tehran, Iran, 4Shahid Beheshti University of signifcant after treatment (p<0. Patient Introduction/Background: Peripheral neuropathy and abnormal compliances of group A were better than that in group B.